These resources are provided “as is”. No correspondence will be entered into.


A list of LPJ-GUESS publications is available here.

Basic references

Publications referring to LPJ-GUESS or its results should in general cite Smith et al. (2001) as the basic reference. The online appendix of that paper, with other references cited therein, fully describes the original implementation. Plant physiology, canopy biophysics and soil biogeochemistry components in the original version of LPJ-GUESS are in common with the model LPJ or LPJ-DGVM as described by Sitch et al. (2003). All but the very earliest studies include the modified hydrology scheme of Gerten et al. (2004). LPJ-GUESS version 2.1 includes updated PFT parameters and other modifications documented in (for global PFTs) Ahlström et al. (2012) or (European PFTs) Hickler et al. (2012). LPJ-GUESS version 3.0 includes an interactive nitrogen cycle and other major revisions, documented in Smith et al. (2014). Managed land functionality, included from version 4.0, was first presented by Lindeskog et al. (2013).

Smith, B., Prentice, I.C. & Sykes, M.T. 2001. Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: comparing two contrasting approaches within European climate space. Global Ecology & Biogeography 10: 621-637.

Sitch, S., Smith, B., Prentice, I.C., Arneth, A., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., Kaplan, J., Levis, S., Lucht, W., Sykes, M., Thonicke, K. & Venevsky, S. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Global Change Biology 9: 161-185.

Gerten, D., Schaphoff, S., Haberlandt, W., Lucht, W. & Sitch, S. 2004. Terrestrial vegetation and water balance—hydrological evaluation of a dynamic global vegetation model. Journal of Hydrology 286: 249-270.

Ahlström, A., Schurgers, G., Arneth, A. & Smith, B. 2012. Robustness and uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem carbon response to CMIP5 climate change projections. Environmental Research Letters 7: 044008.

Hickler, T., Vohland, K., Feehan, J., Miller, P.A., Smith, B., Costa, L., Giesecke, T., Fronzek, S., Carter, T.R., Cramer, W., Kühn, I. & Sykes, M.T. 2012. Projecting the future distribution of European potential natural vegetation zones with a generalized, tree species-based dynamic vegetation model. Global Ecology & Biogeography 21: 50-63.

Lindeskog, M., Arneth, A., Bondeau, A., Waha, K., Seaquist, J., Olin, S. & Smith, B. 2013. Implications of accounting for land use in simulations of ecosystem services and carbon cycling in Africa. Earth System Dynamics 4: 385-407.

Smith, B., Wårlind, D., Arneth, A., Hickler, T., Leadley, P., Siltberg, J. & Zaehle, S. 2014. Implications of incorporating N cycling and N limitations on primary production in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model. Biogeosciences 11: 2027-2054.

Gustafson, A., Olin,S., Ahlström, A., Pongrácz, A., Niederazik, L., Tang, J., Smith, B., Miller, P.A. In prep. High latitude terrestrial ecosystems’ contribution to global warming – will the Arctic be a sink or source of greenhouse gases in the 21st century?

Martín Belda, D., Anthoni, P., Wårlind, D., Olin, S., Schurgers, G., Tang, J., Smith, B., & Arneth, A. 2022. LPJ-GUESS/LSMv1.0: A next generation Land Surface Model with high ecological realism. Geoscientific Model Development - Preprint

Pongracz, A., Wårlind, D., Miller, P. A., and Parmentier, F.-J. W. 2021. Model simulations of arctic biogeochemistry and permafrost extent are highly sensitive to the implemented snow scheme in LPJ-GUESS, Biogeosciences, 18, 5767–5787.

Lindeskog, M., Smith, B., Lagergren, F., Sycheva, E., Ficko, A., Pretzsch, H., & Rammig, A. 2021. Accounting for forest management in the estimation of forest carbon balance using the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (v4.0, r9710): Implementation and evaluation of simulations for Europe. Geoscientific Model Development, 14(10), 6071–6112.

Papastefanou, P., Zang, C. S., Pugh, T. A. M., Liu, D., Grams, T. E. E., Hickler, T., & Rammig, A. 2020. A Dynamic Model for Strategies and Dynamics of Plant Water-Potential Regulation Under Drought Conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 0.

Model description template

A non-comprehensive example of how LPJ-GUESS version 2.1 may be described in the Methods section of a scientific publication. Free for use with or without modification (copyright waived).

Schematic graphics

A PowerPoint file containing various model schematics. PDF version here. Free for use, no citation required.

Popular science description

A popular science-style introduction to help students and newcomers to ecosystem modelling familiarise themselves with some basic elements and concepts. A bit out of date now. Not to be cited.